There are two critical features missing from the Python standard library: Connection re-using/pooling and file posting. It's not terribly hard to implement these yourself, but it's much easier to use a module that already did the work for you.

The Python standard libraries urllib and urllib2 have little to do with each other. They were designed to be independent and standalone, each solving a different scope of problems, and urllib3 follows in a similar vein.

Code Quality Rank: L4
Programming language: Python
License: MIT License
Tags: HTTP     Internet     WWW    
Latest version: v1.26.8

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urllib3 is a powerful, user-friendly HTTP client for Python. Much of the Python ecosystem already uses urllib3 and you should too. urllib3 brings many critical features that are missing from the Python standard libraries:

  • Thread safety.
  • Connection pooling.
  • Client-side SSL/TLS verification.
  • File uploads with multipart encoding.
  • Helpers for retrying requests and dealing with HTTP redirects.
  • Support for gzip, deflate, and brotli encoding.
  • Proxy support for HTTP and SOCKS.
  • 100% test coverage.

urllib3 is powerful and easy to use:

>>> import urllib3
>>> http = urllib3.PoolManager()
>>> resp = http.request("GET", "http://httpbin.org/robots.txt")
>>> resp.status
>>> resp.data
b"User-agent: *\nDisallow: /deny\n"


urllib3 can be installed with pip:

$ python -m pip install urllib3

Alternatively, you can grab the latest source code from GitHub:

$ git clone https://github.com/urllib3/urllib3.git
$ cd urllib3
$ pip install .


urllib3 has usage and reference documentation at urllib3.readthedocs.io.


urllib3 has a community Discord channel for asking questions and collaborating with other contributors. Drop by and say hello 👋


urllib3 happily accepts contributions. Please see our contributing documentation for some tips on getting started.

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