Mock Generator alternatives and similar packages
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A tool to generate the basic mocks and asserts for faster unit testing.
A typical unit test looks like this (AAA pattern):
- Arrange – Setup and prepare the various objects and prerequisites.
- Act – Invoke the tested code by calling the tested function for example.
- Assert – Verify the outcome. This can be the return value of the tested function and/or some side effects.
As it turns out, much of the time spent on doing unit tests is wasted on wiring
the various modules and functions and only a fraction of the time is spent on
the actual logic of the test. The
Assert sections are notorious
in that regard.
This tool is meant to save you much of the time and effort of generating
boilerplates, by generating the
The generated code can then be used as is, or altered according to your needs.
Let's start with a simple code example. Say you have a module
import os def os_remove_wrap(filename): os.remove(filename)
You would like to test that the
os.remove function is called with the same
value sent to your wrapping function. The test would look something like this:
def test_os_remove_wrap(mocker): # Arrange: setup any mocks to avoid deleting actual files # Act: invoking the tested code os_wrapper.os_remove_wrap('/my/path/to/file.txt') # Assert: verifying that the original os.remove function was called
Generating the Arrange section
The following code sends the tested module to the tool, along with instructions which indicate the desired testing framework and which mocks to generate (we would like to use pytest-mock fixture and only mock the referenced modules):
import os_wrapper from mock_autogen.pytest_mocker import PytestMocker generated_mocks = PytestMocker(os_wrapper).mock_modules().generate()
generated_mocks variable now has the desired code:
# mocked modules mock_os = mocker.MagicMock(name='os') mocker.patch('os_wrapper.os', new=mock_os)
Simply copy the code and place it in your test, before the
import os_wrapper def test_os_remove_wrap(mocker): # Arrange: setup any mocks to avoid deleting actual files # auto generated code # mocked modules mock_os = mocker.MagicMock(name='os') mocker.patch('os_wrapper.os', new=mock_os) # Act: invoking the tested code os_wrapper.os_remove_wrap('/my/path/to/file.txt') # Assert: verifying that the original os.remove function was called
Generating the Assert section
Now it's time to add the asserts. Add the following code right after the Act step:
import mock_autogen generated_asserts = mock_autogen.generator.generate_asserts(mock_os)
mock_os is the mocked object you created earlier.
generated_asserts variable now has the desired code:
Place that code right after the act phase and you're done!
The complete test function:
import os_wrapper def test_os_remove_wrap(mocker): # Arrange: setup any mocks to avoid deleting actual files # auto generated code # mocked modules mock_os = mocker.MagicMock(name='os') mocker.patch('os_wrapper.os', new=mock_os) # Act: invoking the tested code os_wrapper.os_remove_wrap('/my/path/to/file.txt') # Assert: verifying that the original os.remove function was called # auto generated code mock_os.remove.assert_called_once_with('/my/path/to/file.txt')
As can be seen, most of the code was autogenerated so you can focus on the Act.
The previous example was meant to demonstrate how to use the tool. If you have experience with pytest-mock than you could have probably come up with the same boilerplate code by yourself in a reasonable time. The next example requires the exact same steps to invoke the tool as before, but the benefit is much greater.
Let's assume you have a module
zip_writer.py which holds a function to
process a string sent to it and then add it to a zip file:
import zipfile def process_and_zip(zip_path, file_name, contents): processed_contents = "processed " + contents # some complex logic with zipfile.ZipFile(zip_path, 'w') as zip_container: zip_container.writestr(file_name, processed_contents)
Although this is a very short function, which does not do anything complex, writing the test code takes a lot of time. It's the fact that the function uses a context manager makes the testing more complex than it should be.
Since the process of generating the test code is the same as in the previous example, there is no need to repeat it. Let's look at the complete code:
import zip_writer def test_process_and_zip(mocker): # Arrange: auto generated code mock_zipfile = mocker.MagicMock(name='zipfile') mocker.patch('tests.sample.code.tested_module.zipfile', new=mock_zipfile) # Act: invoking the tested code zip_writer.process_and_zip('/path/to.zip', 'in_zip.txt', 'foo bar') # Assert: auto generated code mock_zipfile.ZipFile.assert_called_once_with('/path/to.zip', 'w') mock_zipfile.ZipFile.return_value.__enter__.assert_called_once_with() mock_zipfile.ZipFile.return_value.__enter__.return_value.writestr. \ assert_called_once_with('in_zip.txt', 'processed foo bar') mock_zipfile.ZipFile.return_value.__exit__. \ assert_called_once_with(None, None, None)
Look at all the asserts. They are very useful:
- Checking that we opened the zip file with the right parameters.
- Checking that we wrote the correct data to the proper file.
- And finally, ensuring that
__exit__are called, so there are no open file handles which could cause problems.
Can you imagine the time it would have taken you to code this on your own?
After you have followed through this example, you can use the Mock Generator to mock everything. This way you can see all the possibilities of mocks. You can also print the result right away, to avoid having to inspect variables. It can look something like this:
import os_wrapper from mock_autogen.pytest_mocker import PytestMocker print(PytestMocker(os_wrapper).mock_everything().generate())
What you would get is:
# mocked modules mock_os = mocker.MagicMock(name='os') mocker.patch('os_wrapper.os', new=mock_os) # mocked functions mock_os_remove_wrap = mocker.MagicMock(name='os_remove_wrap') mocker.patch('os_wrapper.os_remove', new=mock_os_remove_wrap) # calls to generate_asserts, put this after the 'act' import mock_autogen print(mock_autogen.generator.generate_asserts(mock_os, name='mock_os')) print(mock_autogen.generator.generate_asserts(mock_os_remove_wrap, name='mock_os_remove_wrap'))
Notice the mocked functions section, it allows you to mock functions in that model. This is useful when you're testing a function which uses another function you would like to mock.
You even get the calls to generate the asserts prepared for you, place this code after the act section as shown in the simple example.
Asserting Existing Mocks
At times, you may be editing a legacy code already containing mocks, or you may choose to write the mocks yourself, to gain some extra control.
You can use the mock generator to generate the asserts for you, for
MagicMock, like so (replace
# calls to generate_asserts, put this after the 'act' import mock_autogen.generator print(mock_autogen.generator.generate_asserts(mockObj))
I hope that by now you were convinced that this tool can save you a lot of time.
tests folder for additional usage examples like mocking classes and
instances, using fixtures to share mocks between tests and much more.
If you would like to contribute, I'm accepting pull requests :)